A new report released Monday by California’s Racial and Identity Profiling Advisory Board found that in 2019 people perceived as Black were more likely than other racial groups to be stopped by police for suspicion of criminal activity and to have police force used against them.

The 160-page report analyzes the nearly 4 million vehicle and pedestrian stops conducted by California’s 15 largest law enforcement agencies in 2019. It also examines civilian complaint data and shares best practices on bias-free policing policies.

The board’s 2021 analysis is its fourth annual report required under California’s Racial and Identity Profiling Act of 2015 (RIPA). The law required the state’s law enforcement agencies to begin collecting and reporting data on complaints that allege racial or identity profiling starting in 2016.

“2020 has shown us that the work of the Racial and Identity Profiling Advisory Board is more critical than ever before,” the board’s co-chair Sahar Durali said in a statement. “This year’s RIPA report contains detailed data analysis of police stops and searches across racial and identity groups, as well as comprehensive best practices for law enforcement agencies to root out racial and identity profiling in their practices, policies, and culture and be accountable to their communities.”

Among the report’s key findings is that, of the people perceived as Black who were stopped by police in 2019, 21 percent were stopped for suspicion of criminal activity — the highest such proportion for all racial groups.

The report also found that people perceived as Black were 1.45 times more likely to have force used against them during a police stop than people perceived as white. People perceived as Hispanic were 1.18 times more likely to have force used against them than people perceived as white, according to the report.

When comparing its data to population estimates, the report also found that people perceived as Black were overrepresented in the stop data by 9.3 percentage points.

The report also analyzed data on the rates of searches conducted during police stops, finding that people perceived as Black were searched at 2.5 times the rate of people perceived as white. Although police officers stopped twice as many people perceived as white compared to those perceived as Black, more people perceived as Black ended up being searched, detained, handcuffed, or removed from their vehicles.

People perceived as Black, Hispanic, or Native American all had higher search rates than people perceived as white, although they had lower rates of discovery of contraband or evidence than people perceived as white, the report found.

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